Administrative center: Tyulyachi
Area: 844.10 sq.km
Archaeologists have discovered dozens of historical sites in the rayon, dating back to a number of periods, from the Bronze Age to the Kazan Khanate. Many villages in the area have existed uninterruptedly since the age of the Khanate.
Most of the rayon is covered by lowlands and meadows rich in grass, which is very good for pastures. Soils are fertile, and this makes agriculture more viable. Local tales and legends prove the complexity and abundance of the rayon’s historic past. The settlement of Stariye Tyulyachi was founded in 1560, probably on the spot previously occupied by a fortified town which was the center of Zyureyskaya Darugha and one of the most strategically important points of its time.
At the edge of the village of Stariye Zyuri, by the left bank of the Myosha lies an old cemetery, where an early 16th century Moslem tombstone has been preserved.
The village of Stariye Nyrsy has some even older tombstones, dating back to the 14th century. The finds made in the field lands near the village include some Golden Horde pottery, a clay spindle whorl and a Jochid silver coin. Near the village of Tyulyachi, the remains of a Golden burial mound have been discovered.
The rayon’s administrative center, Tyulyachi, like almost any settlement in its vicinity, was founded in the period of the Kazan Khanate. During the uprising of the indigenous population of the Volga in 1552-1557, the village was abandoned and later rebuilt as a Russian village. It got its name from the nearby Tyulyachka River.
Local farmers have always been focused on arable farming, dairy farming and beekeeping.
Their production sold well at the Tyulyachi market, known far beyond the borders of the uezd. As the media of that time wrote, the market had a unique selection of honey and other apiculture products. In this sense, it was, without doubt, No.1 in the gubernia. Tyulyachi has preserved another Tatar tradition: the courtyard constructions were built of limestone and placed along the perimeter of the fence.
In 1718, Peter I authorized the construction of a shipyard in Kazan to build ships for the Caspian fleet. Centuries-old oak and pine trees suitable for shipbuilding sometimes were found in forests and groves located dozens of miles away. They had to be rafted to Kazan along the big and small rivers leading to the capital. The Kazan Admiralty employed Tatar peasants who lived on government-owned land to act as loggers (lashmans). Lashmans were usually strong men, who could spend many months laboring hard in the forests.
From mid-19th to early 20th century, Tyulyachi, although not a very large village, had a significant impact on the economy of the Laishev uezd. It was the venue of a weekly grain market, also dealing in craftwork, crockery, tea and sugar. By its grain trade turnover, Tyulyachi was second only to Rybnaya Sloboda. Private grain trade continued until the 1920s. Since mid-19th century, Tyulyachi hosted two annual fairs. Beginning on feast days of the Intercession and the Epiphany respectively, each of them lasted a week. Both fairs were established with the support from the local landowner named Solovtsova. Most peasants of Tyulyachi were also involved in the local cooperage business (making wooden barrels). Barrels were in high demand in Kazan and other cities and towns as an effective instrument of waste management. The business went into decline at the start of the 20th century, due to the construction of sewage system and indoor plumbing in Kazan and to the high costs of timber.
Other traditional occupations of local Tatar craftsmen were the tailoring trade and woodworking.
The rayon in its modern borders was established during the Soviet period, on February 10, 1935. However, by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Tatarstan on October 12, 1959 Tyulyachinsky rayon was disbanded and merged with Sabinsky rayon. On November 28, 1991 the Supreme Soviet of the newly-declared Republic of Tatarstan re-established the rayon in its previous location, north-east of Tatarstan’s capital.
The rayon’s coat of arms reflects its most important features of history and culture: "gules, a chief vert, scales argent, with a downfacing point or, left scale filled with grain or, right scale with coins or, along the edge of the chief, a balance argent” The history of Tyulyachi goes back to the days of the Golden Horde and the early Kazan Khanate. The village had been known for its large trade fair (symbolized by the scales with gold coins and grain). Both scales are full, which shows both past grandeur of this land and its modern capabilities. Gold coins are an allegory of the rich historical and cultural heritage of the area and its many unique archaeological landmarks. The green chief indicates that the area has always been agricultural. Tinctures also convey a lot of meaning.
Or is a symbol of harvest, wealth, intelligence and respect. Argent stands for clarity, openness, reconciliation and innocence. Gules symbolizes courage, strength, hard work, beauty and festivals, while vert is associated with nature, health, adolescence and growth.
In the north, Tyulyachinsky rayon borders on Sabinsky, in the east, on Mamadyshsky, in the south-east — on Rybno-Slobodsky, in the south-west, on Pestrechinsky, and in the north-west, on Arsky rayon. It has deposits of building stone, lime and peat. The current population of the rayon is 14,300, of whom 88% are Tatars, 11% Russians and 1% belong to other nationalities. Tyulyachi has a population of about 3,000.
More than 30 enterprises of different ownership types are involved in the rayon’s agriculture, mainly in arable farming and animal breeding. The network of educational institutions of the rayon includes 37 schools, 18 pre-school centers and 3 institutions of further education.
The rayon has a local history museum. Its collection, carefully preserved and expanded by the museum staff, contains valuable sources which illustrate the long history of this land.
A lot of old traditions are still alive in Tyulyachi. The rayon’s present-day residents celebrate a number of festivals together, both religious and folk ones, such as the New Year, Navruz (ancient Turkic spring festival), the Sabantui, or simply a day to honor the best workers.
People of Tyulyachi are proud of their fellow countrymen who brought fame to their homeland. Tatar singers Suleiman Yusupov, Tahir Yakupov, Rasim Nizamov and Venera Ganiyeva; writers Fatih Husni, Mahmoud Maksud and Rashat Nizamiyev, Olympic champions Olga Knyazeva and Shamil Sabirov, fellows of the Academy of Sciences Talgat Sirazetdinov and Yahya Abdullin, Doctor of Philology, Professor Vasil Garifullin and many others hail from Tyulyachinsky rayon.
Tyulyachi hosts Tatarstan’s open championship in Koresh. The 2011 championship was won by the home team.
Visiting this beautiful land, one remembers the lines by the great Tatar poet Gabdulla Tuqay:
I am so proud, my lovely nation,
To be a part of you!
I want to be your poet
And stand up for your rights.
My people’s spirit is close to my heart spirit,
And I have a dream, o my homeland,
To live by sharing your sorrow
Or your joy.
There is no nobler feeling on this earth
Than a love of you, my nation,
The only passion I am obsessed with
Is to always be with you in my heart.